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As soon as war was declared, both the French and German authorities used the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine as propaganda pawns. Corrections? : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The sentiment of attachment to France stayed strong at least during the first 16 years of the annexation. The French government’s attempts to rapidly assimilate Alsace-Lorraine met with problems, however, especially in France’s plans to substitute state-run schools for the region’s traditional church schools and in its attempts to suppress German newspapers (German being the written language of 75 percent of the inhabitants). What is now known as Alsace was progressively conquered by France under Louis XIII and Louis XIV in the 17th century, while Lorraine was incorporated from the 16th century under Henry II to the 18th century under Louis XV[1] (in the case of the Three Bishoprics, as early as 1552). Carte murale d'Alsace et de Lorraine . Carte des Gouvernements de Lorraine et D'Alsace. "[7] The Saverne Affair (usually known in English-language accounts as the Zabern Affair), in which abusive and oppressive behaviour by the military towards the population of the town of Saverne led to protests not just in Alsace but in other regions, put a severe strain on the relationship between the people of Alsace-Lorraine and the rest of the German Empire. Because of its ancient German associations and because of its large German-speaking population, Alsace-Lorraine was incorporated into the German Empire after France’s defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions., being established in 1996, is longtime Europe’s leader in online hotel reservations. Six months later, on July 15, 1915, German became the only official language in the region,[11] leading to the Germanization of the towns’ names effective September 2, 1915. Christophe Felder og hemmelighederne bag de berømte pain d'épices peberkager. This territory was retroceded to France in 1919 after World War I, was ceded again to Germany in 1940 during World War II, and was again retroceded to France in 1945. ISSN: 0037-2560: OCLC Number: 10663241: Notes: At head of title: Université de Strasbourg. On 1 September 1939 the population of Alsace and Moselle living in the Franco-German border region were evacuated. Indisponibil . From an ethnic perspective, the transfer involved people who for the most part spoke Alemannic German dialects. The territory encompassed 93% of Alsace and 26% of Lorraine, while the rest of these regions remained part of France. Alsace-Lorraine is a romantic destination distinct for its cathedral and historical sites. CARTE ROUTIERE ALSACE LORRAINE … About 15,000 Alsatians and Lorrainers served in the German Navy. When Alsace and the Lorraine department became part of Germany, the French laws regarding religious bodies were preserved, with special privileges to the then recognised religions of Calvinism, Judaism, Lutheranism and Roman Catholicism, under a system known as the Concordat. We Germans who know Germany and France know better what is good for the Alsatians than the unfortunates themselves. In this chaotic situation, Alsace-Lorraine's Landtag proclaimed itself the supreme authority of the land with the name of Nationalrat, the Soviet of Strasbourg claimed the foundation of a Republic of Alsace-Lorraine, while SPD Reichstag representative for Colmar, Jacques Peirotes, announced the establishment of the French rule, urging Paris to send troops quickly.[14]. About 161,000 people, or around 10.4% of the Alsace-Lorraine population, opted for French citizenship (the so-called Optanden); but, only about 50,000 actually emigrated, while the rest acquired German citizenship.[6]. The Church of Augsburg Confession of France [fr], with its directory, supreme consistory and the bulk of its parishioners residing in Alsace, was reorganised as the Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine (EPCAAL) in 1872, but territorially reconfined to Alsace-Lorraine only. Alsace-Lorraine Two provinces located in northeastern France that share a border with Germany. Due to the annexation, the Germans gained control of the fortifications of French-speaking[citation needed] Metz, as well as Strasbourg (Straßburg) on the left bank of the Rhine and most of the iron resources of Lorraine. Ultimately, 100,000 Alsatians and 30,000 Mosellans were enrolled, many of them to fight on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Red Army. Thereafter, especially with the grant of a constitution in 1911, some progress was made toward Germanization in the region. [20], After the defeat of France in the spring of 1940, Alsace and Moselle were not formally annexed by Nazi Germany. Abstract. Covers from Champagne east to Souabe, north to Luxembourg, and south to Switzerland. « Die Erfindung des Grenzlandes Elsass-Lothringen », in: Burkhard Olschowsky (ed. During the occupation, Moselle was integrated into a Reichsgau named Westmark and Alsace was amalgamated with Baden. The rest of the département of Meurthe was joined with the westernmost part of Moselle which had escaped German annexation to form the new département of Meurthe-et-Moselle. Top things to do . This area corresponded to the French départements of Bas-Rhin (in its entirety), Haut-Rhin (except the area of Belfort and Montbéliard), and a small area in the northeast of the Vosges département, all of which made up Alsace, and the départements of Moselle (four-fifths of it) and the northeast of Meurthe (one-third of Meurthe), which were the eastern part of Lorraine. In the new Empire's constitution, both states, but especially Bavaria, had been given concessions with regard to local autonomy, including partial control of their military forces. This would only change with the First World War in 1914. While the soviet councils disbanded themselves with the departure of the German troops between November 11 and 17,[15] the arrival of the French Army stabilized the situation: French troops put the region under occupatio bellica and entered Strasbourg on November 21. France long sought to attain and then preserve what it considered to be its "natural boundaries", which were the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, and the Rhine River to the northeast. Your tour comes complete with travel, accommodation and local guides, and is a private luxury tour of north-eastern France where you will visit Alsace and Lorraine, with stops in Champagne, Burgundy and Oise. Thus, by annexing Alsace-Lorraine, Berlin was able to avoid complications with Baden and Bavaria on such matters as new fortifications. Sometimes they were known as the malgré-nous, which could be translated into English as "against our will". Until the Franco-Prussian War, the French had maintained a long-standing desire to establish their entire eastern frontier on the Rhine, and thus they were viewed by most 19th century Germans as an aggressive people. [citation needed] German troops occupied some homes. For each location, ViaMichelin city maps allow you to display classic mapping elements (names and types of streets and roads) as well as more detailed information: pedestrian streets, building numbers, one-way streets, administrative buildings, the main local landmarks (town hall, station, post office, theatres, etc. The area was administered directly from Berlin, but was granted limited autonomy in 1911. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Her kan man cykle langs med kanalerne til Colmar og hen over Strasbourgs overdækkede broer. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Un peu de géographie sur L’Aslace-Lorraine Ancienne carte Alsace-Lorraine – ©CC0 Domaine public L’Alsace. Retur gratuit în 15 zile. [18][19], Since German legislation that repressed homosexuality applied to Alsace-Moselle, homosexuals were deported. [note 3] Some ethnic Germans in the region cooperated in the persecution as a way to demonstrate German patriotism. Signalements de PAN/OVNI et phénomènes annexes pour la Lorraine, l'Alsace et les pays limitrophes (Luxembourg, Belgique, Allemagne). By Bas-Rhin). For that purpose, the population was divided in four categories: A (French citizens before 1870), B (descendants of such French citizens), C (citizens of Allied or neutral states) and D (enemy aliens - Germans). Apr 1, 2016 - It was as a result of the Franco-Prussian War that on May 10, 1871 France was first forced to surrender Alsace and part of Lorraine to Germany. Any additional enmity that would be earned from territorial concessions was downplayed as marginal and insignificant in the overall scheme of things. Upon occupying certain villages, veterans of the 1870 conflict were sought out and arrested by the French army.[9]. Today, these territories enjoy laws that are somewhat different from the rest of France – these specific provisions are known as the local law. Alsace-Lorraine was the name given to the 5,067 square miles (13,123 square km) of territory that was ceded by France to Germany in 1871 after the Franco-German War. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by,, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Alsace-Lorraine, Alsace-Lorraine - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). One of the best family sites in the region is the Ecomuseum in Ungersheim between Colmar and Mulhouse (; tel. [12] But in order to spare them possible confrontations with relatives in France but also to avoid any desertion from the Alsatian soldiers to the French army,[note 5][13] German Army draftees from Alsace-Lorraine were sent mainly to the Eastern front, or the Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Confluence of the branches of the Ill River, Strasbourg, Grand Est. Early in World War II, the collapse of France in 1940 was followed by the second German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, which was again returned to France in 1945. (The term actually appeared after World War I. formed in 1910 as a merger of all leftist liberal parties. The annexed area consisted of the northern part of Lorraine, along with Alsace. Under the German Empire of 1871–1918, the annexed territory constituted the Reichsland or Imperial Territory of Elsaß-Lothringen (German for Alsace-Lorraine). in Charles K. Warner, ed.. Baumann, Ansbert. 1771 (dated) 13 x 17.5 in (33.02 x 44.45 cm) 1 : 930000. ; Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France); Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg. Although the terms of the armistice specified that the integrity of the whole French territory could not be modified in any way, Adolf Hitler, the German Führer, drafted an annexation law in 1940 that he kept secret, expecting to announce it in the event of a German victory. [citation needed], Germans living in France were arrested and placed into camps by the French authorities. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The new border between France and Germany mainly followed the geolinguistic divide between French and German dialects, except in a few valleys of the Alsatian side of the Vosges mountains, the city of Metz and its region and in the area of Château-Salins (formerly in the Meurthe département), which were annexed by Germany although most people there spoke French.

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